*scop*     Last updated on 2009     5     8, a full moon day

polytechnics + visualization engineering + medical knowledge; approx. 13 *scop* available to read;


Anoscopy; FP; Anal fistula; Condyloma; Fissure; Hemorrhoid;


Arthroscopy; FP; also see: www.krames.com;

Concerning knee:

meniscus cartilage tear aka tear of meniscus caused by sudden twist or squatting repeatedly; knee hurt; knee swell; By deploying arthroscopy, can remove torn meniscus, can repair torn meniscus;

ligament tear aka tear of anterior cruciate ligament caused by direct blow, fallen down from height, and twist; knee pain; knee swelling; knee instability; By deploying arthroscopy, can replace graft by removing damaged tissue with healthy tissue; By deploying arthroscopy, can attach graft by placing alloy frame;

articular cartilage wear aka wear out by aging, also might caused by injury; joint's break off piece aka loose body; grinding; pain; stiffness; By deploying laser aka cartilage shaving, can remove abnormal/damage/rough/... articular cartilage; Burr or drill may require to stimulate growth of cartilage;

patella aka damage cartilage under patella caused by aging, direct blow, overuse; patella off-center structure problem; pain; uneven wearing; By deploying arthroscopy, can correct structure problem such as patella smoothing, shaving cartilage, patella realignment, ... ;


Colonoscopy; FP; Colitis; Colonic tumor; Colorectal; Diverticulitis; Graves speculum; Meperidine; Polypectomy; Ulcerative colitis; Also see: Phospho-soda; Magnesia Citrate; Fleet enemas; Golytely;


Colposcopes; Colposcopy; FP; Digital/Optical/Video images collecting/documenting/teaching; Also see: Cervical biopsy; Diethylstilbestrol exposure; Endocervical curettage; Epithelial abnormalities; Fecal occult blood; Kogan endocervical speculum; Midazolam; Schiller test; Squamous dysplasia; Squamous metaplasia; Tenaculum;




Electron Cryomicroscopy;


Endoscope for trans-gastric surgery; Endoscopy; FP; GE; GS; Endoscopic pharynx; Gastrointestinal conscious sedation; Hypopharynx; Larynx; Nasopharynx;


Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; FP; Also see: cervical cryotheraphy, and colonoscopy; Duodenal exam; Dyspepsia; Dysphagia; Esophageal exam; Gastric exam/polyp/ulcer; Hiatal hernias; Lidocaine; Meperidine; Midazolam; Odynaphagia; Pylorus; Sedation; Triazolam; Zenker diverticulum;


Hysteroscopes; Hysteroscopy; FP; OBG;


Laparoscopy; Laparoscopy; Micro-laparoscopy; GS;


Nasolaryngoscopy; FP; Epiglottitis; Epistaxis; Laryngospasm; Lidocaine; Oxymetazoline;


Sigmoidoscopy; FP; Bowel perforation; Butorphanol; Colectomy; Colitis; Colon; Colonic tumor; Contraindicate in ischemic bowel necrosis, in paralytic ileus, in pelvic adhesion, in peritonitis,  ... ; Diverticulitis; Lidocaine; Sedation; Toxic mega-colon; Triazolam;


Virtual Cholangioscopy; ...