Distance     Last updated on 2020/2563 1 10, a full moon day;

approx. 3.927 kilo meter; approx. 2.44 mile; Radical197;

amount; degree; distance; extent; formula; Radical625;

2019/2563 model Laser Shield, also see: Weather;

2018/2561; PHYSICS; (law twenty seven): every light has its ending distance WHICH obey C Sequence Number (BF1); Also see: halt; stop; Radical99; e.g. leaf, leaves, fruit, ... ;

Approx. 8 distances available to read, and this DOMAIN 's imaginary hyper dimensional hyperspace crafts' horizontal ACT3 gray scale has been in 5 columns [still do not know the cause of WHY gray scale is not even to left and to right], but still calculating parallel time because natural time slows down in ACT3 stage ... ;

IFF 3,4 dimensional imaginary hyper space measurement, distance is measured by iro Colour Wave Form (yellowish variation as distance) ... ; this DOMAIN; we human beings can live on many moons but B L I diff because of ... e.g. yellowish variation;

WHILE measuring 2-sided surface based computing, IFF wormhole distance > device constraint (limit), capture begins; also see: PHYSICS;

1st to understand static 2-point distance, and then understand n-point distance; 2nd to understand non-static distance between hyperspace1 and hyperspace2, without weight; 3rd to understand non-static weighted distance among ACT2 stage Fuzzy S V M s in hyperplane1 AND hyperplane2;

 distance ; ri Distance ( position ) ; ri Distance ( position ) ; IFF 2D , ri distance = Sqrt ( ( ^ 2 ) + ( ^ 2 ) ) ; distance = SQRT (( x^2) + ( y^2 )) ;

2-point distance to n-point distance:

Point P1 and point P2 lie on a line L  ;

If point P1 is called A, and point P2 is called B, and then mathematical distance notation can be symbolized/written as AB;

n numbers of points lie in Euclidean space in ACT1 stage was with n dimensions;

n numbers of points P1, P2, P3, P4, ... , Pn; and those n numbers of points must NOT lie in the same Euclidean space in ACT1 stage was with n - 1 dimensions;

IFF square root of 2 (i.e. SQRT2), also see: 98;

WHERE in xy plane, in ACT1 stage, 1 is abscissa for P1 and 2 is ordinate for P1, 3 is abscissa for P2 and 4 is ordinate for P2. Since point P1 and P2 depend on XY coordinate' same data type, P1 and P2 can be represented as array in computers as P1[x, y], P2[x, y], a.k.a. 2 dimensional arrays. After understanding space, and then time WHEN concerns, in simulation, we human beings can only have 2D vision [also see: aspect ratio], therefore, incoming Z as time in 3 dimensional array ... ; However in M theory, 10 dimensional strings have been proposed [Also read Prof. Kaku's Parallel World, for ACT2 and ACT3 stage developments];

IFF AB characteristic is in USB bus testing, for example AB = 10 cm, CD = 14 cm, EF = 24 cm, ... [ testing a port's tolerance by tapping/splitting/sharing/... ] and then notice that USB bus's tolerate distance becomes constraint along with time; Almost all testing boards, bus extenders, modular devices, ... are based on, engineered by distance vs. time, some engineers may say "due to attenuation", some engineers may say "due to resistance", some engineers may say "due to interference", ... , [Time . Space . Action];

spore, IFF iroColourWaveForm (from GREEN to BLUE) WHICH specific spectrum, WHAT is max distance variation of the specific spectrum, WHAT is min distance of the specific spectrum, UPS (i.e. Universal Positioning System) for each location in our universe ... ;

IFF GPS embedded floating poly plastic devices exist,
WHILE calculating triangulation on one surface in the 285 Internet,
for each minute, measure ( direction AND doko location) of each object (
i.e. GPS embedded floating poly plastic device),
IFF (abnormal fast) speed, also see: worm=hole

669 for preventing tsunami, for protecting tsunami, for reducing tsunami; using this DOMAIN, me, this DOMAIN, you, ... ;

ACT3 Distance Calculation, for this DOMAIN 's imaginary hyper craft's parallel time
1st to understand numerical values in numerology; 2nd to understand syntax vs. semantics logic so that only 3 is essential; 3rd to understand homological 2 and 3 solves 4PP + JUN = 6;3*3 ACT3 vectors and their dimensions must be further developed, a new ACT3 dimension must be developed; For ACT3 simulation developers, develop 3*3 ACT3 vectors, therefore this DOMAIN 's imaginary hyper dimensional hyperspace crafts can be able to do displacement of number at parallel time. And then, ACT3 distance calculation to prove gray scales simulation scientifically;

Distance Approximation, with (square root 2) model;

if distance approximation, 1st to understand ((1/1), (3/2), (7/5), (17/12), (41/29), (99/70), (239/169), (577/408), ... ) a.k.a. √2 model; 2nd to understand decimal expansion as sequence (e.g. multiples); 3rd to develop C Sequence Number for each distance;

Also read the book: THE SQUARE ROOT OF 2, DAVID FLANNERY, 2006 Praxis Publishing Ltd., Library of Congress Control Number: 2005923268, ISBN-13: 978-0387-20220-4, page 191, chapter 5 (Odds and Ends);

ACT3 Heat Distance Simulation, for this DOMAIN 's imaginary hyper crafts' parallel time,

After understanding 4 Planets Prediction, and then JUN time, 1st to understand is 1 stick of light, and then sticks as strings must be thoroughly understood; In this DOMAIN 's imaginary hyper dimensional hyperspace craft, 44 sticks need 4 holes to engineer 1 gravity symbol, but heat in distance has not been tested yet, for example: heat in 24 mm natural time might be diff IFF ACT3 hyper crafts went very very very far away from our universe ... ; Therefore, cold and dark room environmental simulation is a must to measure heat in distance, and then ... ; Also read: Oct., 2007 Volume XVII Number 3 LINEAR TECHNOLOGY; Fuzzy Gray Scale Simulation;

Damerau & Levenshtein distance, 1964:

An extension of Levenshtein distance; In addition to Levenshtein distance, additional recurrence has been computed, a.k.a. transposition, and calculated as:

{TRUE}

if ( i > 1 AND j > 1 AND string[ i ] = string [ j - 1 ] AND string[ i - 1 ] = string [ j ] ) then

2d_array [ i, j ] := is going to be assigned min (

2d_array [ i, j ],

2d_array [ i - 2, j - 2 ] + cost

)

Damerau & Levenshtein distance is a.k.a. edit distance. Can be used in natural language processing; Cannot be used in Metric tree;

/****/

Damerau & Levenshtein distance between string and string can be written as:

declare integer 2d_array [ 0 .. length_of_string, 0 .. length_of_string ] /*** 2D table */

declare integer i, j, cost /*** defined variable */

integer Damerau_Levenshtein_distance (character_data_type string [ 1 .. length_of_string ], character_data_type string [ 1 .. length_of_string ] )

/*** WHERE d table contains length_of_string + 1 rows AND length_of_string columns */

For i from 0 to length_of_string

2d_array [ i, 0 ]  := is going to be assigned i

For j from 0 to length_of_string

2d_array [ 0, j ]  := is going to be assigned j

For i from 1 to length_of_string   For j from 1 to length_of_string

If string[ i ] = string[ j ] then

cost := is going to be assigned 0

else

cost := is going to be assigned 1

2d_array [ i, j ] := is going to be assigned min (parameterA, parameterB, parameterC) /*** 3 parameters */ WHERE parameterA is 2d_array [ i - 1, j ] + 1 for deletion, parameterB is 2d_array [ i, j - 1] + 1 for insertion, parameterC is 2d_array [ i - 1, j - 1 ] + cost for substitution

if ( i > 1 AND j > 1 AND string[ i ] = string [ j - 1 ] AND string[ i - 1 ] = string [ j ] ) then

2d_array [ i, j ] := is going to be assigned min (parameterD, parameterE) /*** 2 parameters */ WHERE parameterD is 2d_array [ i, j ] for transposition, parameterE is 2d_array [ i - 2, j - 2 ] + cost for transposition

return 2d_array [return_parameterX, return_parameterY] /*** 2 return_integer_parameters after function integer Damerau_Levenshtein_distance () is called */ WHERE return_parameterX is length_of_string, and return_parameterY is length_of_string

/*** also read: invariant correctness, longest common subsequence problem, upper bound and lower bound, ... , for THIS distance; */

{TRUE} ;

Fuzzy distance, Foundations of Soft Case-Based Reasoning, Pal & Shiu, 2004:

WHERE corresponding objects "not subjects" in different coordinates, and those objects' locations can be represented as set of real numbers, and those sets are needed to be ordered [also see: Orbit] therefore must be weighted;

FuzzySVMs' traveling journeys can be collected as {Fjourney (journey = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ...)  and notice that journey 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... n can become N Euclidean distances;

Therefore N Euclidean distances can be represented as:

distance_without_weight = { Ed1, Ed2, Ed3, Ed4, ... , EdN };

For each Ed ith , dimensional vector (n + 1) can be represented as:

Edi = (xyzi1, xyzi2, xyzi3, xyzi4, ... , xyziN, θi);

WHERE xyzij corresponds to fuzzy member functions of

Fjourney ( 1 〱= j 〱= n ) AND θi corresponds 〉Dimensional Time.Space.Action's

action ( i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... , N);

For each Fjourney  ( 1 〱= j 〱= n ),

Weight Wjourney ( Wjourney Є [ O, 1] );

Weighted distance:

Wd = Wd ( Ed1A, Ed1Ȣ ) = [ journey = 1Σn W2journey (XAjourney - XȢjourney)2  ]1/2

a.k.a. journey = 1Σn W2journey X2journey )1/2 ;

WHERE X2journey = (XAjourney - XȢjourney)2;

Weighted Similarity Measurement:

WSM = 1 / ( 1 + positive constant Weighted distance Wd );

Mapping 〱Fuzzyjourney X Fuzzyjourney 〉[ O, infinity ],

WHERE point pjourney of distance follows:

point pjourney ( A, Ȣ) = O IFF A = Ȣ;Also see: 2-point distance

point pjourney ( A, Ȣ ) = point pjourney ( Ȣ, A );

point pjourney ( A, Ȣ ) = less than or equal to point pjourney ( A, C ) + point pjourney ( C, Ȣ );n-point

IFF A AND Ȣ are real numbers,

point pjourney ( A, Ȣ ) = | A - Ȣ |;

IFF string AND string are intervals,

point pjourney ( string, string ) = maxAЄstring, ȢЄstring | A - Ȣ |;

 { 1 if A ≠ Ȣ IFF A AND Ȣ are symbols, point pjourney ( A, Ȣ ) = O if A = Ȣ

Thus weighted fuzzy distance:

= square root of √ ( journey = 1Σn W2journey  point p2journey ( Ed1A, Ed1Ȣ ) );

Hamming & Levenshtein distance:

In data communication, WHEN error detection and error correction are needed, Hamming & Levenshtein distance is used.

Levenshtein distance, a.k.a. Edit distance

Jaro & Winkler distance, 1999:

Distance dj = ( m / 3a) + (m / 3b) + ((m - t ) / 3m) WHERE matching characters are m; length_of_string and length_of_string are a and b; numbers of transpositions is t; AND any 2 characters in string1 and string2 must not farther than max (( a, b ) / 2) - 1;

Length of common prefixes l with prefix constant scale factor p prompt Jaro & Winkler distance for string and string can be calculated with weighted as:

dw = dj + ( l * p * (1 - dj ))

k-NN algorithm & k-Nearest Neighbor calculation:

...

millibar ( distance) GDC, using artificial intelligence ... ;

pore-pore distance, [Progress in Transmission Electron Microscopy 2; Applications in Materials Science; Xiao-Feng Zhang; Ze Zhang; Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2001]

In ACT2 stage, distance has been defined by time and number Eastern Thought must be understood 1st, WHEN time has been 4 planets prediction's 2*7, and JUN time 2*5, WHERE space can be defined by locations, WHAT number has been by depth and structure as [A, B, C, D, E, ... ] numbers; Surface study in material engineering in ACT1 stage, by electron microscopes, silicate ions' circle characteristic in 5nm ~ 6nm, and those circles seem larger if those circles are near/close to particle's surface, and those circles seem smaller if those circles are longer/farther to particle's surface, WHERE pore's axis must be parallel to particle's surface; The285 distance WHICH initializes "those circles seem larger if those circles are near/close to particle's surface" is called/defined as pore-pore distance in ACT1 stage;

Before understanding carbon nano wall, pore-pore distance must be understood; Carbon study such as C60 and above number+ i.e. C70, C76, ... are a.k.a. carbon nanotubes, and ACT3 artificial light, ACT2 gravity7water2, ACT2 gravity2water7, ... must be understood thoroughly.

this DOMAIN 's imaginary ACT3 hyper dimensional distance

Consider the following table, and then draw/draft a fully connected / fully distributed connection, and then whether full moon day, or no moon day, or up JUN, or middle JUN, or down JUN, ... ; For ACT2, ACT3 Monbusho grant awarded developers, develop D number for next generation children, ... ;

 C number 2-point D number Numerology 108 configuration U number 1to1 3 3 5 … 1to2 62 8 … 1to3 74 2 … 1to4 89 7 … 1to5 69 6 … 2to1 62 8 3 … 2to2 3 3 … 2to3 26 8 … 2to4 69 6 … 2to5 89 8 … 3to1 74 2 1 … 3to2 26 8 … 3to3 4 4 … 3to4 44 8 … 3to5 78 6 … 4to1 89 8 4 … 4to2 69 6 … 4to3 44 8 … 4to4 3 3 … 4to5 54 9 … 5to1 69 6 2 … 5to2 89 8 … 5to3 78 6 … 5to4 54 9 … 5to5 3 3 … 1to6 181 1 6 … 2to6 169 7 … 3to6 143 8 … 4to6 101 2 … 5to6 119 2 … 6to6 4 4 …

Above table's (E3, E3, E3) color, also see: Lo Shu 's any direction IFF ... ;

time     time   AND   1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... number  = distance; ACT2 and ACT3 stage parallel time calculation is in progress, also see: 2554; Also see: yojana (distance measured in Pali);

WHICH spectrum of66 location in95 distance, to be 3D Display, without eye-glasses ... ;

For Monbusho level developers, also see: AI global characters IQ;

Develop D number, DEE, Water Clock, ... until ACT3 number 31 can be solved scientifically ... ;

IFF WCS, using GPS ( locating) WCS location, 95 ♯ cm distance direction ... ;

Also see: ri distance;

_ IFF distance in95 time, a.k.a. Quality; 4PP+JUN=6;
_ IFF power at12 distances (♯ c meter; ♯ m meter; ♯ ... ) electromagnetic induction OR magnetic resonance;
solar tree;

...

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